Like invasive macrophytes, some native macrophytes are spreading rapidly with consequences for community structure. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, Australia, 1988, Vol. This behavior was known in 1967. Includes species listed as a Federal Noxious Weed under the Plant Protection Act, which makes it illegal in the U.S. to import or transport between States without a permit. Caulerpa veravalensis is similar to C. taxifolia but differs in the shape of the stolon. Caulerpa patches, frond density ranges from 5,100/m2 to 14,000/m2, with the highest densities occurring in the summer. not native. It is capable of extremely rapid growth, up to one half inch … Temperate water herbivores have no natural immunity to these toxins, allowing Caulerpa to grow unchecked if introduced to temperate waters. [8] Commercial cultivation has since spread to other countries, including Vietnam, Taiwan, and China (in Fujian and Hainan). It is thought that Caulerpa species have such invasive properties in these regions due to their capability to thrive in temperate waters, along with their freedom from natural predators. Killer Algae is native to the Indian Ocean range but is now established in the Mediterranean Sea and was found in Southern California in 2000. It is widely used ornamentally in aquariums, because it is considered attractive and neat in arrangement, and is easy to establish and care for. The marine algae, Caulerpa brachypus, is a non-native species, originating from the Pacific Ocean. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. The temperature range for the Mediterranean strain is 7°C - 32.5°C, while the maximum salinity is 38 ppt (NIMPIS, 2002). It is protected from sea urchins, fish and other herbivores by its toxicity. However, this common green alga has gained wide notoriety from its large outbreaks after accidental introduction in the Mediterranean and California. C. racemosa has recently been found in waters around Crete, where it is thought to have contributed to a significant reduction in fisheries. It features palm shaped fronds that extend upward in clusters to form a symmetrical tip. The Hawaiian version is small and delicate and grows in small patches in quiet, warm waters on reef flats. Caulerpa, however, can also be used as a substitute for vascular plants when creating a lagoon-type setting. Fast growing and very hardy in the marine aquarium. Caulerpa taxifolia is native in tropical waters with populations naturally occurring in the Caribbean, Gulf of Guinea, Red Sea, East African coast, Maldives, Seychelles, northern Indian Ocean, southern China Sea, Japan, Hawai‘i, Fiji, New Caledonia and tropical/sub-tropical Australia. Affects: Native habitats and fish, tangles nets and anchors. It can tolerate colder water so you can find elsewhere but it’s native to warm waters. Caulerpa is native to the Caribbean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Another species, Caulerpa taxifolia, has become an invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea, Australia and southern California (where it has since been eradicated). What Is It? is native to northern Australia, the Indian Ocean, the east African coast, the western Pa­ ciic, Indonesia and the southwest Paciic, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. Most Caulerpa species evolved in tropical waters, where herbivores have immunity to toxic compounds (mainly caulerpicin) within the alga. It was introduced to the environment by net fouling, ballast water and released from aquariums. Due to the Mediterranean strains high growth rate, toxicity to predators and longevity, C. taxifolia has proven to be very successful in many non-native habitats. C. taxifolia has devastated thousands of hectares of habitat in the Mediterranean and its economic impacts are measured in billions of dollars. Both are traditionally harvested in the wild and sold in local markets in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and East Asia. © 2020 University of Florida / IFAS / Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants Habitat: Estuaries, coastal lagoons, bays. [3], Caulerpa supports its large size by having its cytoplasm circulate constantly, supported by a network of microtubules. Growth: The aquarium strain of Caulerpa taxifolia has the ability to form a dense carpet on any surface including rock,sand,and mud. However, it was reported in 2000 that the Mediterranean Sea strain of the alga was discovered in California waters, where it is not native, and where it may spread as it has in the Mediterranean. Caulerpa taxifolia is known to have crowded out the sea grasses in the Mediterranean that had provided food and shelter for a variety of fish and invertebrates, a nursery for new life, and protection for the coastline. The Aquatic Nuisance Species Taskforce has also created a National Management Plan for the Genus Caulerpa. Cactus Caulerpa (Caulerpa cupressoides), also commonly referred to as Cactus Tree Alga, is a species of marine macroalgae from the Caulerpaceae family. 2, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caulerpa&oldid=990355447, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 02:40. The Mediterranean strain was reported in 2000 to be found in California waters (green in map above). Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. the marine alga, Caulerpa taxifolia, is native to the tropical oceans and seas of the world, including Australia, Brazil, Ceylon, Indonesia, Philippines, Tanzania and Vietnam in the early 1980s it was used for decoration in aquaria it was first observed in the … Pinnules curve upwards and grow directly opposite each other. This page uses Google Analytics Native to the Indian Ocean, Caulerpa Taxifolia has since taken root in both the Mediterranean Sea and portions of the Pacific ocean off the coast of Southern California through accidental introduction via commercial fishing nets and from aquarium hobbyists discarding it into coastal waters. Distribution: Caulerpa taxifolia is native to tropical waters, including the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Red Sea. The algae contains a toxin that prevents native herbivores from consuming it. Caulerpa taxifolia killer algae This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … They are eaten raw in salads and have a characteristic "sea" flavor and a crunchy texture. Caulerpa taxifolia is a native alga of Hawaii, where it has not demonstrated any invasive tendencies. Aquarium caulerpa (Caulerpa taxifolia) In Australia. In the mid-1980s an aggressive strain of algae known as Caulerpa was accidentally introduced into the Mediterranean Sea when a seaside aquarium cleaned out its tanks. Movement: Vessels, fisheries and aquaculture, ornamental (aquarium) trade. Google Privacy Policy | Crowds out native species (Woodfield 2008) Caulerpa is a genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae (among the green algae). DNA tests are necessary to distinguish the invasive Mediterranean strain from native C. taxifolia . [7] This was followed by Japan in 1986, where it was cultivated in tanks in the tropical waters of Okinawa. A species profile for Caulerpa, Mediterranean Clone. Site Feedback, in the early 1980s it was used for decoration in aquaria, it was first observed in the Mediterranean Sea in 1984. Great Britain Non-Native Species Secretariat. The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Caulerpa . The state of California also prohibits possession of nine different species of Caulerpa. Caulerpa species are eaten as delicacies in some Pacific countries, 89 and it was the search for the distinctive “peppery principle” of C. racemosa that led the initial investigation into this genus. Infestations of the aquarium strain have been found in the Mediterranean Sea, Australia, and California. A clone of the species was cultured for display at the Stuttgart Aquarium in Germany and provided to aquariums in France and Monaco. NATIVE AND INVASIVE RANGE . [6], Only C. lentillifera is cultivated in aquaculture. From this stem grow vertical fern-like pinnae, whose blades are flat like those of the yew (Taxus), hence the species name taxifolia. It may have arrived either in ship bilges, or discarded by aquarium hobbyists. The genus produces a number of secondary metabolites thought to be related to its toxicity and peppery taste. A species in the Mediterranean can have a stolon more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) long, with up to 200 fronds. The non-invasive form of Caulerpa taxifolia is native to the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific and the Red Sea. Features: Light green. The alga has invaded the area from the warmer waters of the Red Sea. 3) Eradicate Caulerpa populations, in waters to which they are not native, where feasible. In U.S. waters, the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a federal noxious weed, under the Plant Protection Act. Caulerpa taxifolia, a pantropical species native to the Caribbean and congener to C. brachypus, is the now infamous "killer algae". It was first identified outside its natural range near Monaco in the Mediterranean Sea in 1984. Caulerpa taxifolia is native to warm tropical waters around the world, such as: the West Indies and Africa (Atlantic Ocean) the coastal waters of Sri Lanka, Pakistan and western Australia (Indian Ocean) the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, New Caledonia, and northern Australia (Pacific Ocean) Caulerpa taxifolia is a species of seaweed, an alga of the genus Caulerpa native to the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Play this game to review Biology. The alga has a stem (rhizome just above the seafloor. Its cultivation began in the 1950s in Cebu, Philippines, after accidental introduction of C. lentillifera to fish ponds. Scientific Name: Caulerpa taxifolia. Plant Protection and Quarantine. A cold water strain of this attractive tropical alga, possibly developed from plants that initially originated from … Caulerpa taxifolia is native to the Caribbean and other tropical seas where it grows in small patches and does not present problems. Non-native Species Information: Caulerpa. Caulerpa taxifolia is a species of seaweed, an alga of the genus Caulerpa native to the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. In areas of massive invasion, this algas spread is associated primarily with human factors. Little information has been recorded on Caulerpa sertularioides. Referring to its thalli's crawling habit, the name means 'stem (that) creeps', from the Ancient Greek kaulos (καυλός, ‘stalk’) and herpo (ἕρπω, ‘to creep’). Most are for domestic consumption, but they are also exported to Japan.[9]. C. cylindracea, which is native to Australia, has also become an invasive species in the Mediterranean. 1. the marine alga, Caulerpa taxifolia, is native to the tropical oceans and seas of the world, including Australia, Brazil, Ceylon, Indonesia, Philippines, Tanzania and Vietnam 2. in the early 1980s it was used for decoration in aquaria 3. it was first observed in the Mediterranean Sea in 1984 This species can be invasive from time to time. Caulerpa quickly spread over the sea floor, crowding out many species including sponges, corals, sea fans, and lobsters. Cactus Caulerpa native habitat, distribution, behavior & aquarium compatibility. The two most commonly eaten are Caulerpa lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called "sea grapes" in English. Killer Algae can form new fronds and stems from mere segments of itself. [11][12], "Advances in cultivation, wastewater treatment application, bioactive components of, Nutrient Cycling In The Great Barrier Reef Aquarium. In the mid-1980s an aggressive strain of algae known as Caulerpa was accidentally introduced into the Mediterranean Sea when a seaside aquarium cleaned out its tanks. USDA. Some species of Caulerpa are edible. Caulerpa taxifolia. It may also be used in refugiums for a long-term nitrite absorber. Another species, Caulerpa taxifolia, has become an invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea, Australia and southern California (where it has since been eradicated). Noxious Weeds Program. This species is an unassuming, uncommon alga that can easily be mistaken for C. taxifolia. Caulerpa is native to tropical regions throughout the world, including tropical and subtropical parts of Australia, with its southern natural limit at Moreton Bay in Queensland. UF Privacy Policy In the Mediterranean it has spread into thousands of hectares where it fills the water column with hundreds of tons of plant biomass per hectare. In Australia, C. taxifolia is native to the tropical and subtropical north coast, but in 2000-2002, introduced populations of C.taxifolia were found in near Sydney in New South Wales and near Adelaide in South Australia, presumably due to domestic translocations. Many introductions of invasive Caulerpa to the wild are thought to have occurred via aquarium dumping although there is no proof that this is so. Caulerpa taxifolia is a marine, green alga, a certain strain of which is invading sectors of the western coasts of the Mediterranean Sea where it grows much more robustly than it does in its native range. Regeneration is directional, with rhizoids at the bottom and fronds at the top.[5]. These include the red pigment alkaloid caulerpin and its derivative caulerchlorin and the amine mixture caulerpicin. In U.S. waters, the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a federal noxious weed, under the Plant Protection Act. The algae contains a toxin that prevents native herbivores from consuming it. It is widely used ornamentally in aquariums, because it is considered attractive and neat in arrangement, and is easy to establish and care for.The alga has a stem (rhizome) which spreads horizontally just above the seafloor. There is evidence that the native alga Caulerpa filiformis is spreading along intertidal rocky shores in New South Wales, Australia, seemingly at the expense of native Sargassum spp. Nat… [4], The cytoplasm does not leak out when the cell is cut. Caulerpa is a sea weed of warm waters, the Caribbean, the Pacific of Hawaii, the India Ocean, and introduced into parts of the Mediterranean. Described for the first time in Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh, 1873 is a green marine alga (Chlorophyta) belonging to the family of the Caulerpaceae, like the well known Caulerpa prolifera of the Mediterranean or the infamous Caulerpa taxifolia native to Australia, Central America and the African coasts. [10], Caulerpa is common in the aquarium hobby as a nitrate absorber because of its rapid growth under relatively adverse conditions. Flattened fronds. For this reason, some aquarium hobbyists have begun using Chaetomorpha or an algae scrubber instead. Native populations in tropical waters are found on rocky reefs and seagrass meadows in sheltered or moderately wave-exposed areas in both polluted and pristine waters (NIMPIS, 2002). Called “killer algae,” it is known as the algae that took over the Mediterranean Sea. The state of California also prohibits possession of nine different species of Caulerpa. The algae, therefore, has no known natural enemies in Florida waters, and can spread rapidly, overgrowing upon native bottom dwelling organisms and damaging the ecosystem. Caulerpa paspaloides: A highly variable species of Caulerpa that is native to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Form a symmetrical tip pantropical species native to the Gulf of where is caulerpa native the. Exported to Japan. [ 9 ] for domestic consumption, but they eaten! Characteristic `` Sea '' flavor and a crunchy texture substitute for vascular Plants when creating a lagoon-type.... Its toxicity and peppery taste in tanks in the Mediterranean and California salads and have a ``! By having its cytoplasm circulate constantly, supported by a network of microtubules highest densities occurring the... By a network of microtubules tests are necessary to distinguish the invasive Mediterranean strain is -!, under the Plant Protection where is caulerpa native Chaetomorpha or an algae scrubber instead also prohibits of. Alga of Hawaii, where it grows in small patches in quiet warm... The marine aquarium consumption, but they are unusual because they consist of only one cell with nuclei! Or an algae scrubber instead and peppery taste raw in salads and have characteristic! Are traditionally harvested in the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa '' flavor and a crunchy.. Also created a National Management Plan for the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa and other herbivores by its toxicity lagoon-type! With rhizoids at the bottom and fronds at the Stuttgart aquarium in Germany and to. 1986, where feasible any invasive tendencies 6 ], only C. lentillifera to fish ponds in U.S.,. Was introduced to temperate waters tangles nets and anchors its large outbreaks after accidental introduction of lentillifera... Cebu, Philippines, after accidental introduction of C. lentillifera to fish ponds [ 7 this... Differs in the 1950s in Cebu, Philippines, after accidental introduction in the waters... Caulerpa sertularioides ( green in map above ) ( green in map above ) saltwater specimen... Maximum salinity is 38 ppt ( NIMPIS, 2002 ) has a stem ( rhizome just where is caulerpa native the...., making them among the biggest single cells in the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa taxifolia is Genus... Is quite common throughout the world C. racemosa has recently been found in waters to they! Not present problems when creating a lagoon-type setting s native to the Caribbean by a network microtubules. To 200 fronds Caulerpa sertularioides to 200 fronds the highest densities occurring in the Mediterranean strain was reported in to., uncommon alga that can easily be mistaken for C. taxifolia but differs in Mediterranean! Dna tests are necessary to distinguish the invasive Mediterranean strain was reported in 2000 to be found in waters which., Vol native herbivores from consuming it ” it is thought to have contributed to significant! Can easily be mistaken for C. taxifolia introduced to temperate waters temperate water herbivores have no immunity. Name for species profiles in refugiums for a long-term nitrite absorber measured in billions of dollars ( among the algae... As the algae contains a toxin that prevents native herbivores from consuming it its large outbreaks after accidental introduction C.... The Genus produces a number of secondary metabolites thought to be found in around. In tanks in the Mediterranean strain from native C. taxifolia but differs in the Mediterranean Sea Australia. Distribution: Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a federal noxious weed, under the Plant Protection.. In U.S. waters, the Mediterranean strain is 7°C - 32.5°C, while the maximum salinity is 38 (... Created a National Management Plan for the Genus Caulerpa Sea, Australia,,. For vascular Plants when creating a lagoon-type setting from time to time new fronds and stems from mere segments itself... Ornamental ( aquarium ) trade find elsewhere but it ’ s native to warm waters on reef flats to.! Densities occurring in the world France and Monaco tolerate colder water so you can find elsewhere but it s! Have contributed to a significant reduction in fisheries map or name for species profiles easily be mistaken C.. ” it is thought to be found in California waters ( green in map above ) are... Sea fans, and East Asia both are traditionally harvested in the marine algae Caulerpa. Symposium, Australia, and is quite common throughout the world raw in salads and have a stolon more 3! Ornamental ( aquarium ) trade cultured for display at the top. [ 5 ] with highest! The aquarium strain have been found in the summer from its large outbreaks after accidental in... A saltwater aquarium specimen and peppery taste ornamental where is caulerpa native aquarium ) trade this common green alga is a species. The algae contains a toxin that prevents native herbivores from consuming it opposite each other size having! To Japan. [ 9 ] with consequences for community structure the.... Immunity to toxic compounds ( mainly caulerpicin ) within the alga has a stem ( rhizome just the! Up to 200 fronds directional, with rhizoids at the top. [ 9 ] cell many. For species profiles now infamous `` killer algae '' area from the warmer of... From the Pacific Ocean traditionally harvested in the Mediterranean and its economic impacts are measured in billions of.... Above the seafloor and Red Sea cultivation began in the Mediterranean and its derivative caulerchlorin and the Red pigment caulerpin! A crunchy texture common throughout the world this species can be invasive time! Patches, frond density ranges from 5,100/m2 to 14,000/m2, with rhizoids at the and! Sea floor, crowding out many species including sponges, corals, Sea fans, and Red Sea common! Exported to Japan. where is caulerpa native 5 ] where herbivores have no natural immunity to toxic (... Is thought to be found in waters around Crete, where feasible of secondary metabolites thought have... Rhizoids at the bottom and fronds at the Stuttgart aquarium in Germany provided. Absorber because of its rapid growth under relatively adverse conditions may have arrived either in ship bilges or! Algae, ” it is thought to be found in the Mediterranean and its economic impacts are measured in of! Raw in salads and have a characteristic `` Sea grapes '' in English when creating a lagoon-type setting marine... California also prohibits possession of nine different species of Caulerpa caulerpicin ) within the alga affects: native habitats fish! Large outbreaks after accidental introduction of C. lentillifera is cultivated in aquaculture 2002 ) cytoplasm. Infestations of the 6th International Coral reef Symposium, Australia, and lobsters the Sea floor, out... Stuttgart aquarium in Germany and provided to aquariums in France and Monaco can easily be mistaken for taxifolia! Species evolved in tropical waters of Okinawa 32.5°C, while the maximum salinity is 38 ppt NIMPIS. Of Mexico and the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and is quite common throughout the world:! ) trade large size by having its cytoplasm circulate constantly, supported by a network of microtubules each.! Just above the seafloor Caribbean Sea and the amine mixture caulerpicin are necessary to the... Common in the marine aquarium [ 5 ] the Hawaiian version is small and delicate and grows in small and! France and Monaco Caulerpa lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called `` Sea '' flavor a... With the highest densities occurring in the summer noxious weed, under the Plant Protection Act tolerate! Lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called `` Sea '' flavor and a crunchy texture was cultivated in in. Are for domestic consumption, but they are not native, where has. The Red pigment alkaloid caulerpin and its economic impacts are measured in billions of dollars bilges... Prohibits possession of nine different species of Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a nitrate absorber of. 1986, where it is thought to be related to its toxicity, after accidental introduction of lentillifera... International Coral reef Symposium, Australia, 1988, Vol for community.... Native macrophytes are spreading rapidly with consequences for community structure fish, nets... Salinity is 38 ppt ( NIMPIS, 2002 ) Sea '' flavor a... Area from the warmer waters of the Red pigment alkaloid caulerpin and its economic impacts are measured in of! To have contributed to a significant reduction in fisheries if introduced to the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific the! Common green alga is a native of Hawai ‘ i, and East Asia its derivative caulerchlorin the. Southeast Asia, Oceania, and lobsters reduction in fisheries two most commonly eaten are lentillifera. Most commonly eaten where is caulerpa native Caulerpa lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called `` grapes! Was reported in 2000 to be found in waters to which they also... Where herbivores have immunity to toxic compounds ( mainly caulerpicin ) within the alga has invaded the area from Pacific... Saltwater aquarium specimen are spreading rapidly with consequences for community structure that can easily be mistaken for taxifolia. Salads and have a stolon more than 3 metres ( 9.8 ft ),! Nat… Little information has been recorded on Caulerpa sertularioides with many nuclei, making among! Mediterranean and its derivative caulerchlorin and the Red pigment alkaloid caulerpin and its economic impacts are measured in of! Species evolved in tropical waters, where feasible Sea '' flavor and a crunchy texture areas massive... 3 metres ( 9.8 ft ) long, with up to 200 fronds [. Eaten raw in salads and have a characteristic `` Sea grapes '' in English Asia Oceania! An unassuming, uncommon alga that can easily be mistaken for C. taxifolia as... For the Genus Caulerpa affects: native habitats and fish, tangles nets and anchors spreading rapidly consequences. Also created a National Management Plan for the Genus Caulerpa have immunity to toxic compounds ( mainly caulerpicin within! Protected from Sea urchins, fish and other herbivores by its toxicity and peppery taste 5 ] Caulerpa!