A. ES are named as follows: (a) food supply, (b) water flow regulation and runoff mitigation, (c) urban temperature regulation, (d) noise reduction, (e) air purification, (f) moderation of environmental extremes, (g) waste treatment, (h) climate regulation, (i) recreation, Breadth score indicator measuring the inclusion of urban ES in the three plan components. It includes tourism; provides recreational, aesthetic, cultural and spiritual services, etc. In our sample of 22 urban plans of Italian cities, we found a high number of actions to address urban ecosystem services and a variety of tools for implementation. Ecol Soc 18:37. Urban ecosystem, any ecological system located within a city or other densely settled area or, in a broader sense, the greater ecological system that makes up an entire metropolitan area. This report constitutes a knowledge base which can … © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Most natural elements such as landscapes, mountains, caves, are used as a place for cultural and artistic purposes. Within the urban eco­sys­tem, hu­man well-​being is de­pend­ent on a wide range of ser­vices; some of these are provided mainly by nat­ural and semi-​natural eco­sys­tems, such as re­cre­ation in green open spaces and fresh food from urban aquacul­ture, while oth­ers, such as hous­ing, trans­port, health, edu­ca­tion and tele­com­mu­nic­a­tion, are cre­ated by hu­mans. Water flow regulation and runoff mitigation also differs in term of target areas and, consequently, implementation tools, mostly prescriptions related to the share of unsealed surfaces to maintain in new developments. Planning for Ecosystem Services in Cities, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.10.017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.009, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.12.002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.05.008, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.09.003, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0504-0, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.08.001, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.09.005, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.04.012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.07.016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.04.023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9888-8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.04.007, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.10.009, https://doi.org/10.1080/09640560903399772, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.04.003, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20024-4_2, 2.2 Methods to Analyse ES Inclusion in Urban Plans. Definition of specific design solutions to implement either in public projects or in privately lead urban developments. Definition. Landsc Urban Plan 107:127–136. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work's Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt or reproduce the material. Even a few of them are considered sacred. fossil fuels, minerals, metals) and abiotic flows (e.g. Land use policy 50:38–47. Finally, it could support the explicit identification of ES demand and beneficiaries, thus improving baseline information to address urban environmental equity, and providing planners and decision-makers with stronger arguments against conflicting interests on land-use decisions. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. Tang Z, Brody SD, Quinn C et al (2010) Moving from agenda to action: evaluating local climate change action plans. Environ Sci Policy 62:57–68. Ecosystem services provided when spaces identified in (1) are put to agricultural use. Following previous content analyses of urban plans (Geneletti and Zardo 2016; Woodruff and BenDor 2016), we identified three main plan components: information base, vision and objectives, and actions. Participation is on a voluntary basis. Plan IDs can be found in Annex I, Depth score indicator measuring the quality of inclusion of urban ES in the information base and in the vision and objectives components. 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