अनुवाद : प्रभुसत्ता के लिए संघर्ष से रॉयल कमीशन के लिए प्रार्थना करना भारी परिवर्तन का संकेत देता है। फिर भी पिछली घटना को भारतीय मांगों के प्रतिपादन का आरम्भ कहा जता है ।, 4. Profession and social rank are largely hereditary, and culture, language and rituals are tied to these in a rigid way. He holds the very term national unity as misnomer, as all elements of the nation were not interested in the freedom struggle. From a struggle for ………… ………….. of India’s demanda. Summary This book describes the twin evolutions of nation and state from the Middle Ages to the present and links them to stages in European cultural history. Hobsbawm, who is accepted to be one of the … Nationalism to industrialists means complete freedom to exploit the country’s resources to build up their fortune. This article presents a review of 'Nations and Nationalism since 1780: programme, myth, reality' by E.J. But if they can so tell each other apart [...] a new nation is born [...] (p. 73). Postmodernism, Reason and Religion by Ernest Gellner. 2. Industrial Culture - One or Many? He holds the very term national unity as misnomer, as all elements of the nation were not interested in the freedom struggle. They also want to maintain balance of power by getting political power. Report "Gellner – Nations and Nationalism Summary" Please fill this form, we will try to respond as soon as possible. Postmodernism, Reason and Religion by Ernest Gellner. It is freedom from exploitation whether this exploitation is carried on by a brown or a white skin. Nationalism can be thought to be a reflection of the national character. Although it is often thought to be very old, nationalism did not become a great determining factor in history until the end of the 18th century. (Page numbers for all citations refer to the 2006 Cornell paperback edition of the book.) Description. It is hard to decide whether nationalists or anti-nationalists will find Nations and Nationalism more disturbing; rootless cosmopolitan though I am, it changed my mind on a great many subjects. It is not obvious which way the causation goes here. It has its own wiki page. Pre-modern rulers sought to distinguish themselves culturally from the ruled, often cultivating a real or imagined foreign ethnic origin, speaking a different language, and rarely being concerned with the day-to-day lives or culture of their subjects. He views the nation as a changing, evolving, modern construct that is brought into being by nationalism, and not the other way around. Nationalism can be thought to be a reflection of the national character. The final date for submissions for the 2020 prize award is 30 November 2021. He is one of the most prominent leaders and thinkers produced by India in modern times. The state has no interest in promoting or facilitating lateral commmunication between geographically separated citizens. Thus Gellner's book, which predates the current era of resurgent nationalism, already contains the seed of a response to this criticism, if we replace "industrial society" by "global technological economy". This is a well concise version of the theory of modernism elaborated by varied thinkers and political scientist. Description. Gellner begins his book with an influential definition of nationalism which has been widely repeated both by nationalists (including Hazony) and their opponents: Nationalism is primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent. NOTE: Eric Hobsbawm is one of the best known historians of the Twentieth Century. NATIONS AND NATIONALISM. Let us now turn from the grassroots to the high peaks from which those who governed states and societies after the French Revolution surveyed the problems of nation and nationality. It would have been comic for the peasants in 1885 to have ‘united with the baboos in demanding ‘seats’ in the councils and more jobs for the English-educated. He argues that nations are a modern construction and that they are not unchanging social entities. Download Gellner – Nations and Nationalism Summary Comments. So, I believe it would do to have a brief summary of the pre-modern history of Spain. Let us take………………………a peasant raj. Though nationalism is inevitable, most particular ethnic groups do not make nationalist claims. Introductory overview of the comparative politics concepts of nation and nationalism Hobsbawm defines nationalism as "primarily a principle which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent" (9). Nationalism as a sentiment, or as a movement, can best be defined in terms of this principle. This thoughtful and penetrating book, addressed to political scientists, sociologists, historians, and anthropologists, interprets nationalism in terms of its social roots, which it locates in industrial social organization. What is not being Said 131. Question and Answer forum for K12 Students. (p. 120). However, the transformation of European nation-states into martial camps did not always coincide with the rise of fascism as a distinctive political and cultural technology. (Pre-nationalist Germnay was made up of a multiplicity of genuine communities, many of them rural. The Landlords of India are largely the creation of British imperialism. Such action is dangerous for the foreign oppressor as for the native. Nations and Nationalism since 1780 - October 1992. Eric Hobsbawm’s Analysis of Nationalism, Part 2. Like all serious scholars of nationalism and nationalists themselves, Gellner has to contend with a manifest fact: the "principle of nationality" as he describes it, is at odds with the incredible multiplicity of potential nations. Gellner asserts that nationalism follows from the demand for homogeneity, itself a consequence of industrialization. What must be explained, according to him, is why after the 19th century all nations felt the need to refer to a sometimes fabricated pre-modern history to justify their existence, and why certain (but by no means all) ethnocultural groups which had lived for thousands of years inside various dynastic states or pluralistic empires suddenly found this situation intolerable. Culture creates structure rather than merely lying on top of it. Submit Close. Even then, the conflict will seldom become acute and escalate indefinitely, contrary to Marxist expectations, unless the privileged and the others can identify themselves and each other culturally, "ethnically". His theory is modernist. Reason. Gellner famously begins by defining nationalism as ‘primarily a principle that holds that the political and national unit should be congruent’ (p. 1). We cannot easily imagine a world without nations, nor are we happy with the idea that our nation is a recent creation, or a construct of elites. 110. The journal is published quarterly by Wiley and includes original studies, theoretical, empirical, historical, and philosophical, of a range of issues in … अनुवाद : हम राजाओं की बात करें। उनकी स्वतंत्रता का अर्थ है पूर्ण प्रभुसत्ता, जो कि युद्ध क्षेत्र में लड़कर प्राप्त की जा सकती है। परन्तु 1857 के पश्चात् कौन-सा. Learncram.com has provided National Unity, Nation and Nationalism Objective Questions and Answers Pdf, Chapter Story Ka Meaning in Hindi. 9 Nationalism and Ideology 118. Who is for Nuremberg? Different classes constitute the ‘nation’ and give expression to nationalism at different times. Big Landlords have always stood with imperialism. In the context of Gellner's theory, the small number of actual nations compared to potential ones is a sign of the weakness of nationalism. Nations and Nationalism is the only journal in the English-speaking world specifically devoted to the study of nationalism. Gellner's theory of nationalism was developed by Ernest Gellner over a number of publications from around the early 1960s to his 1995 death. National Unity, Nation and Nationalism Written by Jayaprakash Narayan Introduction to the Chapter. The most common form of theories on nations and nationalism are based around modernity. Theorists of this ilk are referred to as using modernist or developmentalist approaches. Nationalism, ideology based on the idea that the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. The landlords……………………. “Nations as a natural, God-given way of classifying men, as an inherent though long-delayed political destiny, are a myth; nationalism, which sometimes takes pre-existing cultures and turns them into nations, sometimes invents them, and often obliterates pre-existing cultures: that is a reality, for better or worse, and in general an inescapable one. ‘Nation and Nationalism’, published in 1983, is one in the series of many books published by Gellner. 14. The rigid, unquestioned inequality of agrarian society is replaced by inequality with a "statistical and probabilistic" character: not all, but some can now hope to advance in society. To be without such an idiom is to be cut off from all prospects of a decent life. They are what Goodhart calls "Anywheres", but the concept is much older. Nationalism would not be of so much interest were it nothing but a self-serving ruling class ideology. NATIONS AND NATIONALISM. Let us take…………………….. with ‘reforms’. If the latter option is chosen, a high, literate culture must be forged from the folk culture and existing vernacular if is not already available. 10 Conclusion 131. Thus, we see that a ‘nation’ does not in reality mean the whole nation, nor does nationalism comprise the interests of all the classes and groups within it. The role of culture in industrial society is no longer to reinforce existing social structure, but rather to provide a common matrix to allow all members of society to understand each other. What is not being Said 131. Here is the third breach in national unity. Gellner's thesis is both more precise and more ambitious in scope: to him, nationalism is an inevitable consequence of the industrial state's need for ethnocultural homogeneity. The above analysis……………………..of the first. The lack of moderns means of comunications results in strong segmentation among the majority of the population, who live, work and communicate only with those geographically very close to themselves. For most people, nations-especially their own nations-seem perennial and immemorial. SINCE 1780 Programme, Myth, Reality ERIC HOBSBAWM. Industrial Culture - One or Many? अनुवाद : ये तथ्य राष्ट्रीयवाद व राष्ट्रीय एकता पर भारी प्रकाश डालते हैं। न तो सामन्त जो 1857 में लड़े थे, न ही वे बाबू जिन्होंने 1885 में कांग्रेस की स्थापना की थी, समूचे राष्ट्र थे और न ही उनके अंतर्गत जो वर्ग व समुदाय थे, वे उनका प्रतिनिधित्व करते थे। यह सोचना हास्यप्रद होगा कि 1885 में खेतिहर कृषक बाबुओं के साथ परिषद् में स्थान और अंग्रेजी पढ़े लोगों के लिए नौकरियों की माँग करने के लिए सम्मिलित होते । (सम्भवतः आज भी किसानों से बाबुओं के साथ मिलकर अस्पष्ट स्वराज और मातृभूमि नाम की रहस्मय वस्तु के लिए लड़ने की अपेक्षा करना कम हास्यास्पद नहीं है।), 6. Nationalism is primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent. In the last phase of his life, Jaya Prakash Narayan started movement against authoritarianism which is popularly known as J.P. movement. Over the past several years political debates and theoretical discussions have failed to provide a better understanding of many important issues concerning the role of nations and nationalism in the world today, as well as the political modernization taking place in Russia. There is not a specific date belonging to this theory as… Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Summary: This is Gellner's classic modernization argument explaining. According to him, only the masses had any real interest in the anti-imperialist struggle and therefore, the need of the hour was to organize the masses to rise against the forces of imperialism. Download Gellner – Nations and Nationalism Summary Comments. Likewise with the…………………………..further breach. Like Tom Nairn s uneven development Michael Hechters Internal colonialism	John Breuillys nationalism as a form of politics Paul brasss instrumentalism Eric Hobsbawms invention of tradition and Ernst Gellners high cultures. Nationalism does not mean the same thing to all these classes. Summary. For Gellner, this is unconvincing: political ideas dreamed up by intellectuals simply do not posses such power by themselves. National Unity, Nation and Nationalism Summary in English In the present essay, Jaya Prakash Narayan asserts the importance of maintaining national unity to resist foreign rule. Further, India is a land of peasants. States become the protectors of High Cultures, of "idioms"; nationalism is the demand that each state succor and contain one and only one nation, one idiom. राजा अपनी प्रभुसत्ता प्राप्त करने के लिए युद्ध करने की परिस्थिति में है ? The need for mass literacy in a language common to all strata of society, and specialization mean that sub-communities of the industrial state are no longer able to self-reproduce. अनुवाद : जैसा भली-भाँति पता है कि जमींदार अधिकतर अंग्रेजी साम्राज्य के बनाए हुए हैं। बड़े जमींदारों ने सदा साम्राज्य का साथ दिया है और ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में वे इसके सबसे मजबूत सहारा हैं। इन लोगों के लिए राष्ट्रवाद का कोई अर्थ नहीं-सिवाए इसके कि यदि राष्ट्रीय शक्तियाँ मजबूत होती हैं और भारतीयों को राजनैतिक शक्ति मिलती है, तो वे इस शक्ति को निष्प्रभाव कर देंगे । वे स्वयं साम्राज्यवाद का विरोध करने, या उसके विरुद्ध आन्दोलन करने में रुचि नहीं रखते । राजनीति में उनका प्रवेश यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए होगा कि भारतीयों के हाथों में शक्ति स्थानान्तरण से उनके हितों को कोई क्षति नहीं पहुँचती । राजनीति की तनिक भी जानकारी या अनुभव रखने वाला जमींदारों से एकता की बात नहीं कर सकता । यह राष्ट्रीय एकता में दूसरी दरार है।, 10. इन दोनों घटनाओं में केवल 28 वर्ष का अन्तर था फिर भी उन्होंने राष्ट्रीय दृष्टिकोण में अविश्वसनीय परिवर्तन पैदा किया था। 1857 में प्रभुसत्ता-सम्पन्न शक्ति के लिए खुला, सशस्त्रीय संघर्ष हुआ। 1885 में विनीत आवेदन ।, 3. As a Jewish Czech, Gellner was forced to leave his home in 1939, fleeing Prague for England in the wake of Hitler's takeover of Czechoslovakia. From the onset of his book, Gellner provides an abstract definition of Nationalism as “primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent” (p. 1). –3). One survey of concepts in International Relations (IR) said of the term ‘ national interest ’ that it was ‘the most vague and therefore easily used and abused’; of nationalism, that ‘there is a lack of consensus about what it is and why it has maintained such a firm hold over so much of the world's population’; and that ‘Nations and states seem identical but they are not’ (Griffiths and O'Callaghan 2002: 202–13). This requires a language and vocabulary that can encompass all aspects of life, rather than the multitudes of vernaculars and sometimes even entirely different languages attached to different aspects of life in agrarian society (language of the elites and warriors, liturgical language, local dialects, etc.) These facts throw………………………called the Motherland. Diaspora Nationalism 98. अनुवाद : यह विश्लेषण इसके अतिरिक्त यह स्पष्ट करता है कि राष्ट्रीय एकता का अर्थ वास्तव में यह है कि निम्न वर्ग-जनसाधारण-साम्राज्यवाद के विरुद्ध युद्ध स्वयं का शोषण से छुटकारा पाने के लिए न लड़े, बल्कि मध्यवर्ग और शक्तिशाली जमींदारों को साम्राज्यवादी शक्तियों के स्थान पर गद्दी पर बैठाने के लिए लड़े, जो स्वयं तो युद्ध में भाग नहीं लेते। यह एकता केवल जनसाधारण की चेतना की कीमत देकर कायम रखी जा सकती है।, Word-Meanings: Let us now turn from the grassroots to the high peaks from which those who governed states and societies after the French Revolution surveyed the problems of nation and nationality. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Kafyra Kyriaki Mitronatsiou Anastasia Garozi Eleftheria E.HOBSBAWM BIOGRAPHY Born in 1917 in Egypt Historian and author Marxist Member of Communist party Lecturer at Birkbeck college, visiting professor at Stanford and the New School for Social Research Fellow of the British Academy Work: The social construction … Last month I posted my first article about Eric Hobsbawm’s book, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality.This time I’m looking at the second chapter, Popular proto-nationalism. अनुवाद : आओ हम अपने राष्ट्रीय इतिहास की दो उल्लेखनीय घटनाओं की तुलना करे 1857 और 1885. The difference lies not only in its objectives but in its human content as well. Summary: Nations and Nationalism is an important book in the historiography on nationalism as it is one of the best accounts by a Marxist of the development of nations. The freedom of one of them is not the same as the freedom of the other. The premise of the modernist theory is that nations have occurred as a natural result of modernity. The above analysis…………………………..of the first. Written in 1983, it has been central to the subject. A common recent criticism of Gellner's theory is that it fails to account for the resurgence of nationalism in societies where industrialization is all but completed. 125. Thus we see…………………………….class propaganda. The central break in history giving rise to a complete reorganization of culture, and ultimately to the conditions which inevitably lead to nationalism, is the transition from an agrarian society, where most people are agricultural producers, to an industrial society, where the production of food now depends on machinery and specialists. If you have attended (or taught) an international masters program in political science at an Ivy league school, for example, you will have noticed that despite the apparent diversity of nationalities and ethnic origins of the participants, they all seem to largely share common values and references. So, I believe it would do to have a brief summary of the pre-modern history of Spain. By nation, Gellner means an ethnocultural group. Summary of Nations and Nationalism. As for the method of struggle, peasants have always known direct method. Many choose the former option, so that scores of "potential nationalisms" are never realized. In agrarian society, horizontal stratification is very strong among rulers, who seek to distance themselves from the ruled, and others lower in the hierarchy of power. Furthermore, there are three phases to the development of nationalism according to Hobsbawm (1990 12): A preliminary phase in which the idea of the nation is purely cultural and/or folkloric; A pioneering phase wherein political campaigners begin to … breach in unity. Is it the need for a nation that engenders nationalism? 34.). After Hazony's new and fairly concrete defence of nationalism, I present to you Ernest Gellner's influential but highly theoretical study of nationalism. As a result, scholarship on nationalism deals with complex issues regarding the nature of identity and belonging, as well as the origins and legitimacy of the international system of nation-states. Nations Without Nationalism is an impassioned plea for tolerance and for commonality, aimed at a world brimming over with racism and xenophobia. This is a well concise version of the theory of modernism elaborated by varied thinkers and political scientist. In addition to many books on a variety of topics, Hobsbawm has written two important texts dealing with the subject of nationalism. The mobility required of workers in industrial society automatically tends to foster a measure of egalitarianism. I have always been accustomed to think of a nation just as notable (adj) : unusual = उल्लेखनीय, महत्वपूर्ण, wrought (v) : shaped, brought about = गढ़ा, sovereign (adj) : highest power in a country= प्रभुसत्ता-सम्पन्न, peasants (n) : small farmers = खेतिहर किसान, circumstances (n) : conditions = परिस्थितियाँ, stempede (v) : drive भागना, perpetuation (n) : make eternal = चिरस्थाई बनाना, vassals (n) : subordinates = अधीन, imperialism (n) : belief in colonial empire : साम्राज्यवाद, breach (n) : break = दरार, props (n): support = सहारा, euphemistically (adv) : substituting a mild word for harsh one = नरमी से बात कहना, aegis (n) : patronage = संरक्षण surrepitiously (adv) : stealthily = लुका छुपाकर, incubus (n) : something bad = दुस्वप्न ।. Even after the initial shock of industrialization, nationalism can arise as a result of "counter-entropic" forces opposing the homogenization in industrial society. He died in the year 1979. The Indian industrial…………………………..of their class. Summary of Nations and Nationalism From the onset of his book, Gellner provides an abstract definition of Nationalism as “primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent” (p. 1). समाजवादी विध्वंस करने का प्रयास कर रहे हैं। समाज में रहने वावले सभी वर्गों के लिए राष्ट्रवाद का अर्थ एक ही नहीं होता। यह साधारण रूप से विदेशी मुसीबत से छुटकारा पाना नहीं है। कुछ वर्ग प्राकृतिक रूप से उस मुसीबत के पक्ष में होते हैं और वे जो इसके विरुद्ध हैं, उनमें से कुछ उसका विरोध करने के योग्य नहीं हैं और जो इस योग्य हैं, उनके मूल स्वार्थ पहले वाल से सीधे टकराते हैं।, 18. अनुवाद : सो हम देखते है कि राष्ट्र का अर्थ समस्त राष्ट्र नहीं होता, और न ही राष्ट्रीयवाद में उसमें रहने वाले सभी वर्गों व समुदायों के हित निहित होते हैं । अलग-अलग समय पर विभिन्न वर्गो से राष्ट्र बनते हैं और राष्ट्रवाद को व्यक्त करते हैं। किस समय कौन-सा वर्ग या समुदाय यह भूमिका निभाएगा, यह इतिहास की परिस्थितियों और समाज के ढाँचे पर निर्भर करता है। यह प्रायः हो जाता है कि किसी क्षण का राष्ट्रीय हित अधिसंख्यक जनता के वास्तविक हित के विपरीत होता है। जब ब्रिटेन में 1931 के निर्वाचन के समय ‘देश खतरे में है’ का नारा लगाया गया था, इसका वास्तव में प्रयोजन लोगों को ब्रिटिश पूँजीवादी को चिरस्थाई बनाने के लिए मतदान करने के लिए हाँकना था, ब्रिटिश पूँजीवाद को चिरस्थाई बनाने के लिए मतदान करने के लिए हाँकना था, ब्रिटिश पूँजीवाद जो कि शोषण व बन्धन का प्रतीक था। इसलिए राष्ट्र को अभाजित व समूचा मानना, वर्गीय प्रचार का शिकार बनना है।, 7. This happens if identifiable groups persistently perform better or worse than average in societies that now consider barriers to mobility as illegitimate. For an opposing view, see B. Yacks "Nationalism and the Moral Psychology of Community", which I hope to summarize here some time. I think his point is that such a culture has already to some extent emerged. Nor the manner in which they fight for freedom, is the same for all. This book provides an intensive theory of nationalism and rejects various false connotations surrounding both the nation and the state. अनुवाद : यही बात मजदूरों के बारे में है। मजदूरों के लिए आजादी का अर्थ उत्पादन के साधनों पर सामाजिक मिलकियत के द्वारा वेतन की दासता से आजादी प्राप्त करना है। किसानों की भाँति मजदूरों का शस्त्र भी सीधी कार्रवाई है और वे भी वर्ग के बारे में सचेत नहीं होंने चाहिए ताकि राष्ट्रीय एकता को बनाए रखा जा सके । वर्ग की भावना से सचेत मजदूर वर्ग का अर्थ राष्ट्रीय एकता का भंग होना है। यह एक और दरार है।, 16. Nations and Nationalism since 1780 - October 1992. Nationalism has no meaning to these people they want jobs in higher services. The most common form of theories on nations and nationalism are based around modernity. Introduction. Everything is set up for Gellner's essential argument: nationalism arises whenever and wherever barriers exist to the spread of industrial society and the homogenization it brings with it. One Nation, One State 128. These include: Nations and Nationalism Since 1780 and The Invention of Tradition.The excerpt included here is drawn from Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Free trade, open borders, taco trucks on every corner. I can never find the time to read everything, so I always appreciate effortposts like this. Nationalism is a species of patriotism distinguished by a few very important features: the units which this kind of patriotism, namely nationalism, favours with its loyalty, are culturally homogeneous, based on a culture striving to be a high (literate) culture; they are large enough to sustain the hope of supporting the educational system which can keep a literate culture going; they are poorly endowed with rigid internal sub-groupings; their populations are anonymous, fluid and mobile, and they are unmediated; the individual belongs to them directly, in virtue of his cultural style, and not in virtue of membership of nested sub-groups. Nations, encampments, and fascism As the example of Martinique makes clear, fascism’s militarism and fraternalism changed the character of its national communities. Gellner's work is one of many that argue that nationalism must be understood as a product of modernity. This is a well concise version of the theory of modernism elaborated by varied thinkers and political scientist. However, what influences nationalism? अनुवाद : उपरोक्त विश्लेषण ने यह दर्शा दिया कि राष्ट्रीय एकता जैसी कोई चीज नहीं है जिसका समाजवादी विध्वंस करने का प्रयास कर रहे हैं। समाज में रहने वाले सभी वर्गो के लिए राष्ट्रवाद का अर्थ एक ही नहीं होता। यह साधारण रूप से विदेशी मुसीबत से छुटकारा पाना नहीं है। कुछ वर्ग प्राकृतिक रूप से उस मुसीबत के पक्ष में होते हैं और वे जो इसके विरुद्ध हैं, उनमें से कुछ उसका विरोध करने के योग्य नहीं हैं और जो इस योग्य हैं, उनके मूल स्वार्थ पहले वाले से सीधे टकराते हैं।, 17. It is not clear that social mobility or mass literacy in a single language are indispensable for industrial society to function (e.g. 125. Abstract This article argues that the current wave of nationalism has to be understood as a response to globalisation and not as evidence for the enduring nature of the national idea, as Smith suggests. 110. Responding to the rise of neo-N Underlying Julia Kristeva's latest work is the idea that otherness - whether it be ethnic, religious, social, or political - needs to be understood and accepted in order to guarantee social harmony. Thus, we see,……………………….in national unity. In 1885, seventy-two persons from middle classes including retired government servants became ready to carry on India’s struggle for independence. Gellner was introduced to nationalism and identity politics during his youth. First, industrialization spreads unevenly, leaving certain populations at a relative disadvantage. Existing language and cultural differences also put individuals not partaking in dominant cultures associated with an industrial society in front of a dilemma: assimilate or demand political autonomy for your group. Note here the contrast between Gellner claiming that the nationalism favors "unmediated" membership to the nation with Hazony's picture of the nation being the union of tribes, themselves consisting of clans made up of families and individuals whose loyalty to the nation then ultimately rests on their loyalty to their family. Not casually, in the book's concluding summary we ﬁnd a reference to art (pp. –3). As a result, scholarship on nationalism deals with complex issues regarding the nature of identity and belonging, as well as the origins and legitimacy of the international system of nation-states. Hazony responded to this by tempering his nationalism by prudential conservatism: nations do not have an absolute right to independent statehood, and we should favor stable, existing nation-states. अनुवाद : इससे आगे उद्योगपतियों की बात करते हैं। उनक लिए राष्ट्रवाद का अर्थ देश के संसाधनों (मानव व माल) का अपने स्वार्थ के लिए लाभ उठाने और अपनी पूँजी बढ़ाने की पूरी आजादी है या जिसे हम मंगल भाषा में देश का विकास करना है । इसके लिए उनको सरकार पर भारी नियन्त्रण की आवश्यकता है, जिससे अन्ततः उन्हें पूर्ण नियन्त्रण प्राप्त हो जाए । परन्तु क्योंकि इसमें जोखिम बहुत हैं, वे इस नियन्त्रण के लिए धीरे-धीरे ‘सुधार’ के साथ रियाअतें प्राप्त करके संतुष्ट रहेगे।, 11. It is not a feature of human nature: Contrary to scholarly popular belief, nationalism does not have any very deep roots in the human psyche. Students of nationalism will have to come to grips with his interpretation of the causes for the emergence of nationalism, since he has declared that most of the previous explanations are largely mythical. If, however, both ………………………. In this way nationalism downs not mean the same thing to all the classes within the nation. This thoughtful and penetrating book, addressed to political scientists, sociologists, historians, and anthropologists, interprets nationalism in terms of its social roots, which it locates in industrial social organization. Gellner discussed nationalism in a number of works, starting with Thought and Change, and he most notably developed it in Nations and Nationalism. अनुवाद : भारतीय उद्योगपति वर्ग साम्राज्य के संरक्षण में बढ़ा है और आर्थिक व राजनैतिक संदर्भ में उस पर पूर्णतः आश्रित है। उन्हें अन्य कोई सहारा नहीं है, जैसे कि आयरलैंड के मध्यवर्ग को अमेरिका में था। भारत में इस विकास के परिणामस्वरूप लोगों को ऐसा लाभ नहीं हुआ है। न ही देश के आर्थिक या सांस्कृतिक जीवन पर कोई प्रभाव अनुभव हुआ है। जिससे लोगों में इसका समर्थन करने के लिए जोश पैदा हो । इसलिए यह वर्ग साम्राज्यवाद का विरोध करने में अक्षम है। अधिक से अधिक यह इस पर दबाव डाल सकता है। परन्तु यह दबाव भी समूचे वर्ग की ओर से न होगा। केवल एक ही ढंग से जिससे यह साम्राज्यवाद पर दबाव डाल सकता है और वह है उन वर्गों को जिनको ऐसा करने में कम जोखिम है, उनको प्रलोभन देकर या लुक-छुप कर उनकी सहायता कर सकता है। वह सहायता भी वह खींच लेगा यदि दबाव का उद्देश्य उस वर्ग के हितों की पूर्ति के अतिरिक्त कुछ और होगा।, 12. Submit Close. Whereas a peasant or blacksmith could teach his trade to his children in agrarian society, industrial society needs specialists to learn skills they cannot acquire in familial or clan in-groups. What do exist are cultures, often subtly grouped, shading into each other, overlapping, intertwined; and there exist, usually but not always, political units of all shapes and sizes (p. 47). 2 Agrarian Society v.s. Thus nationalism for Gellner appears as a necessary consequence of the homogenizing drive of industrialization and the discrepancy between egalitarian expectations and non-egalitarian outcomes. However, the transformation of European nation-states into martial camps did not always coincide with the rise of fascism as a distinctive political and cultural technology. Secondly, they would get satisfied with facilities for economic development. ” anyway congruent '' ( 9 ) and emphasises the role of war the! 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