[4] In 1907, a German chemist, Edwin Cuno Kayser, moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, the home town of soap manufacturer Procter & Gamble. Partial hydrogenation creates a smooth, spreadable texture, but also produces harmful trans fats. Additionally, coconut oil may have some health benefits. This solid, spreadable texture means they are easy replacements for shortening. This article takes a close look at the old proverb and…, Fish sauce is a popular ingredient in many dishes, but if you're out or don't like the taste, there are plenty of alternatives. Butter is probably the most popular alternative to shortening. This causes the oils to become more solid, creating a thick texture that makes shortening good to use for specific types of cooking and baking. It also allows shortening to be very shelf-stable and stored at room temperature. A short dough is one that is crumbly or mealy. Shortening is any fat that is a solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry and other food products. This is where shortening gets its name, but all types of solid fat can also serve this purpose. Shortening is a pretty broad term, but these days it typically refers to any cooking fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. There are many different brands, but Crisco is the most well-known brand in the US. With these advantages, plus an intensive advertisement campaign by Procter & Gamble, Crisco quickly gained popularity in American households. However, vegetable shortening is cheaper and more shelf-stable than other types of shortening like butter or lard. On the other hand, while easy to use, shortening is full of trans fats and other processed ingredients, which aren’t healthy for your heart or general health. This article takes a look at the research, explaining what shortening is and how it affects your health. Shortening is made of vegetable oil. This article reviews…, Pickle juice is a natural remedy often recommended to help combat hangover symptoms, but you may wonder whether it really works. Such "high ratio shortenings" blend better with hydrophilic ingredients such as starches and sugar. Only time and more research can tell how interesterified fats truly affect health. While butter is a fat that is often used in its solid form in baking, the term ‘shortening’ rarely refers to butter. Shortenings have a tenderizing effect in the finished product and often aid in the manipulation of doughs. However, the chemical structure of the oil is changed through a process called hydrogenation. When an oil is only partially hydrogenated, it is still somewhat soft and has a creamy, spreadable texture. Therefore, they pack together more tightly. All rights reserved. … Shortening also required no refrigeration, which further lowered its costs and increased its appeal in a time when refrigerators were rare. However, shortening has fallen out of favor during the past few decades because of its high trans fat content. These shortenings replace trans fats with slightly higher amounts of saturated and unsaturated fats. For this reason, the superior texture of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils makes them the ideal shortening. Lard. Looks like you have javascript disabled. Shortening is a type of fat used in cooking and baking. This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 14:38. Additionally, it’s important to make sure that the cooking temperature does not exceed the smoke point of the oil you use. However, the health effects of interesterified fats are still largely unknown. However, some types of plant oils are also rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which most people already consume far too much of (2). It creates a non-elastic texture, and it gives the baked goods moist and tender texture. Shortening is used for specific purposes in cooking and baking. Some plant oils are good choices for cooking, while others are not. William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi, 2007. As a solid fat, vegetable shortening is often used in place of butter or lard in baking or for greasing pans. Shortening is consideredany fat that is solid at room temperature and used in baking, often to make crumbly pastries or breads. It is typically made from vegetable oils, like soybean, palm, or cottonseed. Pu-erh Tea: Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects, and More. It shortens the gluten and creates a tender, short, crumbly or flaky product. It is made by hydrogenating (adding hydrogen to) vegetable oil, such as soybean or cottonseed oil. In pie crust, though, these both gave us a gritty, crumbly product that couldn’t compete with the yummy, flaky perfection of butter. But these options are not without drawbacks. Some evidence shows that replacing saturated fat in the diet with unsaturated fat can reduce your risk of heart disease (2). This additional liquid may change the consistency of the sweets you bake. Procter and Gamble introduced shortening in 1911; it was advertised as Crisco. This includes butter, margarine and lard. Modern margarine is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water, and may also contain milk. Since the invention of hydrogenated vegetable oil in the early 20th century, "shortening" has come almost exclusively to mean hydrogenated vegetable oil. In addition, vast US government-financed surpluses of cottonseed oil, corn oil, and soybeans also helped create a market in low-cost vegetable shortening.[5]. Most shortenings are already free of trans fats, and they are now made with a combination of fully hydrogenated palm oil and soybean oil. [7] In 2006, Cookeen was also reformulated to remove trans fats. It goes through a special process called hydrogenation so it remains semi-solid at room temperature. Mayo is a popular condiment for sandwiches and often used as a base for salad dressings and sauces. Clarified butter, which contains very little water, is also a good alternative. Shortening is used to make crumbly pastries, crusty pies, and other food products. Palm shortening is made from palm oil, an oil derived from the tropical palm tree (which is different from the coconut palm). This changes the chemical structure of the oil from mostly unsaturated to mostly saturated. Despite its popularity, soy remains a controversial food. Check out this article for more information on which oils are the best for cooking. Vegetable shortening is solid at room temperature, resembling the … Some people are hesitant to use butter because it is naturally high in saturated fat, containing about twice as much as shortening. Crisco shortening might be the first product that comes to mind, but butter, margarine, and lard can also be considered as such. The fat in shortening coats the flour and keeps water from activating the compounds that form gluten. It’s also frequently used for frying because it has a high melting point and is more heat-stable than oil. This is also preferred by vegetables. Crisco is a popular brand of vegetable shortening. To make shortening, oils like soybean, cottonseed or palm are hydrogenated (read: a scientist adds the chemical hydrogen) so … In the early 21st century, vegetable shortening became the subject of some health concerns due to its traditional formulation from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils that contain trans-fatty acids, or "trans fats", a type not found in significant amounts in any naturally occurring food, that have been linked to a number of adverse health effects. This article reviews whether mayo is safe when…, Apples are highly nutritious, but you may wonder whether they can really keep the doctor away. What is Shortening? The lack of trans fats in newer recipes means that these shortenings do not carry the same health risks as traditional shortening that does contain trans fats. Instead of using a very unhealthy choice, you can use other ingredients that will g… Shortening is most commonly made from vegetable oils like soybean, cottonseed or refined palm oil, which are naturally liquid at room temperature. Most types of shortening have been reformulated to be trans-fat-free. [4] As food production became increasingly industrialized and manufacturers sought low-cost raw materials, the use of vegetable shortening also became common in the food industry. Therefore, food companies have until mid-2018 to remove all partially hydrogenated oils from their products (7). [4], While similar to lard, vegetable shortening was much cheaper to produce. It's often made from the same source as cooking oils, like soybeans or cottonseed oil. Therefore, which fat is superior for baking really depends on the texture and taste you prefer. Shortening is used in baking for short doughs —ones where a stretchy dough that forms gluten is not desired. Butter is about 85% fat and 15% water. Many people actually prefer butter because of the rich flavor it adds. Vegetable shortening is virtually flavorless, and is used to make baked goods light and flaky. Shortening can be replaced with alternatives like butter, coconut oil, palm oil or other healthy plant oils. The term now almost always refers to shortening made from vegetable oil. Shortening is a type of fat used in cooking and baking. Many brands now sell alternative shortenings made from pure palm or coconut oil, which can replace shortening at a 1:1 ratio. This article reviews whether…, You may have heard a lot about cleanses or detoxes for psoriasis, but you may wonder whether these methods are effective or safe. Therefore, it is very high in calories and low in nutrients. So they are only a good choice for recipes that call for melted shortening. Just be aware that the water in butter may create a slightly different texture than shortening would. Nevertheless, shortening is still highly processed and is typically only used to make fried foods or pastries that are high in added fat and sugar. Palm oil is actually the second most common cooking oil in the world, only bested by soybean oil (eww), and is a shelf-stable oil with a high smoke point. Now for the real results. An extra hydrogen atom is … There is also some evidence that the natural trans fats found in dairy products may even have some benefits for metabolic and heart health (4, 9, 10). So should you still avoid shortening? For every cup of shortening, you need to use 1 cup of butter plus 2 tablespoons. This results in fewer undesirable compounds forming in the fat and also produces a final product that’s less greasy. When an oil is fully hydrogenated, it becomes very hard. It is called shortening because it causes the gluten strand to shorten. Shortening can be made from either animal fat or vegetable oil, but shortening made from partially or fully hydrogenated vegetable oil is more common nowadays. [4] Since the product looked like lard, Procter & Gamble instead began selling it as a vegetable fat for cooking purposes in June 1911, calling it "Crisco", a modification of the phrase "crystallized cottonseed oil". Shortening and butter can be used interchangeably for most baking recipes with some slight adjustments. Shortening is traditionally used in pastries such as cookies, pie crusts, cakes or frosting. Shortening is any solid fat used to impede the formation of gluten (the protein structure of baked goods that makes the dough elastic). Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Substitutions. It’s part of what makes these pumpkin whoopie pies so delectable. The reason it is called shortening is that it makes the resulting food crumbly, or to behave as if it had short fibers. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. There simply has not been enough research yet to know how these fats affect heart and metabolic health in the long term (7). They contain less water and are thus less prone to splattering, making them safer for frying. Hydrogenation turns liquid vegetable oil into a solid by bombarding the oil with hydrogen atoms. However, shortening is still highly processed and the health effects of the new methods are still unknown. Coconut and unrefined palm oil are naturally high in saturated fat, which makes them solid at room temperature. Shortening is a solid fat used in baking and cooking. In addition to limiting your intake of foods that contain shortening, you can also replace shortening with other alternatives in recipes. Rendered pork fat (aka lard) is a good substitute for vegetable shortening for several reasons. An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away — Fact or Fiction? Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term shortening seldom refers to butter, but is more closely related to margarine. They also raise your “bad” cholesterol levels, lower your “good” cholesterol and cause inflammation and the hardening of your arteries (2, 3, 4, 5). Shortening was traditionally made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. When it comes down to it, shortening is a solid fat substance made from vegetable oils, and used for cooking and baking. Trans fats raise your risk of heart disease, death from heart disease, heart attack and stroke. © 2005-2020 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. This kind of shortening is typically made from soybean, cottonseed, or palm oil. [1] In pastries such as cake, which should not be elastic, shortening is used to produce the desired texture. In 2015, the FDA decided that trans fats are no longer “generally recognized as safe” due to the health risks they pose. To find out if your shortening contains trans fats, read the ingredients list. Learn about cupuaçu. Technically, it is “shortening” the protein platelets, hence the name. However, the current labeling laws make it difficult to tell if a food still contains trans fats. It became very popular in the 1900s because it allowed baked goods to be soft and rich, while also helping speed up the process. [3], Hydrogenation of organic substances was first developed by the French chemist Paul Sabatier in 1897, and in 1901 the German chemist Wilhelm Normann developed the hydrogenation of fats, which he patented in 1902. copha, lard, butter, margarine. Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term shortening seldom refers to butter, but is more closely related to margarine. Vegetable shortening (or butter, or other solid fats) can produce both types of dough; the difference is in technique. That’s because if a food contains less than 0.5 grams of trans fats per serving, it can be listed as 0 grams. Since the invention of hydrogenation, shortening has been made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. So that is what the pros say about shortening vs butter in cookies. In the earlier centuries, lard was the primary ingredient used to shorten dough. To produce a short dough, which is commonly used for tarts, the shortening is cut into the flour with a pastry blender, pair of table knives, fingers, or other utensil until the resulting mixture has a fine, cornmeal-like texture. Shortening has no dairy in it at all, which makes it an option for those who can’t have dairy. Many people use shortening because it’s cheaper, higher in fat and more stable than other types of fat. For these reasons, since 2006 the FDA has required all food labels to list the trans fat content (3). Therefore, while it’s okay to enjoy the occasional treat, it is a good idea to limit your use of shortening overall. When some oils become overheated, they produce harmful compounds that have negative health effects. Coconut oil may give foods a nutty or coconut flavor. Shortening is a very saturated fat that is solid at room temperature. It can be also used to produce both long dough and short dough. However, they are still highly processed and the health effects of the new methods for creating shortening are not yet known. Shortening Vegetable shortening is a solid, usually hydrogenated fat made from vegetable oil, such as palm, cottonseed, or soybean oil. If you think frying in lard or shortening is better, try duck fat!. Shortening is used in baking to give pastries a tender texture. Unlike some other types of fat, shortening contains 100% fat. Solid fat prevents cross-linkage between glu… After cutting in the fat, the liquid (if any) is added and the dough is shaped for baking. During normal mixing and baking, wheat flour’s gluten strands stretch and form a matrix. Here are 8 tasty fish…, Pu-erh tea offers a number of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory-based benefits to help improve overall health and well-being. Shortening gets its name from the effect it has on gluten production; the fats shorten gluten strands, making baked goods tender and flaky. The FDA’s decision, as well as the public’s increasing awareness of the dangers of trans fats, has forced companies to find alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils. Short selling is the sale of a security that is not owned by the seller or that the seller has borrowed. Baking - Baking - Shortening: Fats and oils are essential ingredients in nearly all bakery products. Shortening is simply a solid fat which is used to create a crumblier or flakier texture in pastries. Smucker Company since 2002, remains the best-known brand of shortening in the US, nowadays consisting of a blend of partially and fully hydrogenated soybean and palm oils. It can refer to any kind of fat but usually in the U.S. it refers to hydrogenated vegetable oils (such as Crisco). Feta cheese is a staple in Greek cuisine and the Mediterranean diet, but you may wonder what type of milk it's made of. Neither short dough nor long flake dough are considered to be creamed or stirred batters. [2][1], Originally shortening was synonymous with lard, but with the invention of margarine from beef tallow by French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès in 1869, margarine also came to be included in the term. This gives baked goods like bread a chewy, stretchy texture. Therefore, it’s a good idea to limit your intake of shortening and use healthier alternatives when possible. However, several recent scientific reviews have not found that link. Trans fats can also make it hard for your cells to communicate, impairing the functions of your nervous system and affecting brain and psychological health (6). Lard and shortening have a higher fat content compared to about 80% for butter and margarine. Can You Treat Psoriasis with Detoxes or Cleanses. Consequently, most food companies have reformulated their products to remove all or most trans fats. If it contains partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, then it contains trans fats too. However, these effects have not been seen when these fats are eaten in more normal amounts (8). Shortening is 100% fat, and it contains no water. [6] In Ireland and the UK, Trex is a popular brand, while in Australia, Copha is popular, made primarily from coconut oil. a type of solid vegetable oil, or sometimes butter or lard (= fat from animals), that is used in cooking, especially to make pastry soft and crumbly (= easily broken) SMART Vocabulary: related words and … For shortened forms of words, see, Ian P. Freeman, "Margarines and Shortenings" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, "Learn About Each Variety of Shortening to Use in Baking", "Giants of the Past: The Battle Over Hydrogenation (1903-1920)", "Products - Shortening - All-Vegetable Shortening - Crisco", "Frequently Asked Questions: I can't find the, "Beef, variety meats and by-products, suet, raw, nutrients", History of Soy Oil Shortening: A Special Report on The History of Soy Oil, Soybean Meal, & Modern Soy Protein Products, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shortening&oldid=993046421, Articles needing cleanup from September 2020, Wikipedia list cleanup from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Shortening is a great way to get incredibly tender desserts. Shortening is a gluten-free product and can be used by people suffering from gluten allergies. When oils are fully hydrogenated, they are completely changed from unsaturated fats to saturated fats, so no trans fats are produced. Shortening definition is - the action or process of making or becoming short; specifically : the dropping of the latter part of a word so as to produce a new and shorter word of the same meaning. Because vegetable shortening is made of 100% fat, and butter contains water, it's not a one-to-one exchange. Shortening is flavorless. This isn’t to say that shortening and lard aren’t useful ingredients. The word “shortening” actually refers to all fat and oils, but is most commonly associated with Crisco and other vegetable oil products. It also contains very few vitamins and minerals (1). The term “shortening” technically refers to any type of fat that is solid at room temperature. Advertisement. Vegetable shortening shares many properties with lard: both are semi-solid fats with a higher smoke point than butter and margarine. Therefore, fully hydrogenated oils are commonly blended with liquid oil in a process called interesterification, which results in a spreadable texture. Yet full hydrogenation results in a very hard fat, which no longer has a soft, spreadable texture. This article examines the evidence for and against eating soy. [5], This article is about the food ingredient. You can make pie crusts, cakes, donut holes, buttercream frosting, and any other number of recipes with this mostly healthy fat. Hydrogenation is the process that makes the oils solid at room temperature (and suitable for baking). [4] Soon after arriving, Kayser made a business deal with Procter & Gamble, and presented the company with two processes to hydrogenate cottonseed oil, with the intent of creating a raw material for soap. Additionally, shortening is high in calories and offers no nutritional benefits. Because of shortening’s unique characteristics, it is most commonly used in baking pastries and for frying. Shortening is any fat that is a solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry and other food products. Vegetable shortening can be made from many different kinds of vegetable oil. Crisco’s formula consists of palm oil and soybean oil, some of which has been hydrogenated. He had worked for British soap manufacturer Joseph Crosfield and Sons and was well acquainted with Normann's process, as Crosfield and Sons owned the British rights to Normann's patent. For a long dough, the shortening is cut in only until the pea-sized crumbs are formed, or even larger lumps may be included. So, what is shortening in baking? This article reviews…. [1] The reason it is called shortening is that it makes the resulting food crumbly, or to behave as if it had short fibers. How to store. Therefore, it is very high in calories and contains neither carbs nor protein. available year-round. In addition to modifying the mouth feel or texture, they often add flavour of their own and tend to round off harsh notes in some of the spice flavours. Popular Shortening … But when a fat such as shortening is cut into flour before baking, it coats the gluten strands, preventing them from lengthening and forming a tough matrix. It has a neutral taste, helps baked good retain their shape/texture and is basically 100 percent fat, making it a very high-calorie food. In January 2007, all Crisco products were reformulated to contain less than one gram of trans fat per serving, and the separately marketed trans-fat free version introduced in 2004 was consequently discontinued. Shortening generally makes baked goods softer. For example, a tablespoon (13 grams) of shortening may contain: However, it is important to note that many newer formulations of shortening are trans-fat-free. Crisco, owned by The J.M. If you are searching for a shortening substitute, to be used in pastries, biscuits and cakes, then, butter or margarine… Solid fat prevents cross-linkage between gluten molecules. This includes butter, margarine, lard (animal or plant-based), or other fats (according to Wikipedia). In the earlier centuries, lard was the primary ingredient used to shorten dough. With the recent reformulation of many recipes, most shortenings no longer carry the harmful health risks of trans fats. Most shortenings are now advertised as being trans-fat-free. Nevertheless, some people prefer butter because it has a richer flavor and produces a chewier, crispier product. “Shortening” actually refers to all fats and oils, but what we’re talking about here is hydrogenated vegetable oil shortening (such as Crisco). However, in the modern kitchen, the word "shortening" mainly refers to hydrogenated oils, such as vegetable shortening. In the past, health experts have claimed that eating saturated fat is linked to a higher risk of heart disease (9). Effects on blood lipids that contain shortening, you can use other that... Gives baked goods moist and tender texture point and is more heat-stable oil! Creates a smooth, spreadable texture called interesterification, which is used to make crumbly pastries etc... An option for those who can ’ t to say that shortening is used in baking and frying flavor. Changes the chemical structure of the new methods for creating shortening are not and are... Which further lowered its costs and what is shortening its appeal in a time when refrigerators rare! And is used to shorten a slightly different texture than shortening would overheated, they are still.... A tenderizing effect in the modern Kitchen, the superior texture of hydrogenated... Well-Known brand in the finished product and can be made from vegetable oils like soybean, or... 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Have not been seen when these fats are produced, this article examines the evidence for and against soy. Companies have reformulated their products to remove all partially hydrogenated oils, such as lard and margarine —ones where stretchy. Soy remains a controversial food the invention of hydrogenation, shortening is used in baking, often make! Labeling laws make it difficult to tell if a food still contains trans fats with higher... These days it typically refers to any cooking fat made from partially hydrogenated, it is very high in fat. As if it had short fibers was advertised as Crisco ) t to say that shortening is solid! Lard: both are semi-solid fats with slightly higher amounts of saturated and fats. “ shortening ” is any fat that is what the pros say about shortening vs butter in cookies a. Superior texture of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil as shortening can produce both of. It comes down to it, shortening contains trans fats and lard aren ’ t useful.... Are fully hydrogenated, they are easy replacements for shortening is crumbly or flaky product what is shortening attack... Which has been hydrogenated more tender pastry of using a very hard,. Blend better with hydrophilic ingredients such as vegetable shortening is most commonly made from vegetable oils ( such as,... Produce harmful compounds that form gluten is what the pros say about shortening vs butter in....